A bond-washing transaction is a transaction where securities are sold sometime before the due date of interest and reacquired after the due date is over. This practice is adopted by persons in the higher income group to avoid tax by transferring the securities to their relatives/friends in the lower income group just before the due date of payment of interest. In such a case, interest would be taxable in the hands of the transferee, who is the legal owner of securities.
In order to discourage such practice, section 94(1) provides that where the owner of a security transfers the security just before the due date of interest and buys back the same immediately after the due date and interest is received by the transferee, such interest income will be deemed to be the income of the transferor and would be taxable in his hands.
In order to prevent the practice of sale of securities-cum-interest, section 94(2) provides that if an assessee who has beneficial interest in securities sells such securities in such a manner that either no income is received or income received is less than the sum he would have received if such interest had accrued from day to day, then income from such securities for the whole year would be deemed to be the income of the assessee.